JUNE 2017

Chapter 03 - The Sound Engine

Sound is a very important part of any high action arcade game. Ever since my first CoCo game Neutroid II, I have always tried to present plenty of noise in my games. I wanted to showcase what the CoCo was capable of producing.

For many of the 8-bit computers of that era such as the Commodore 64, Atari 800, MSX and Texas Instruments, sound was a matter of using the built in sound chip to play sound effects and music with minimal CPU intervention.

Unfortunately, the CoCo was never gifted with such hardware luxuries and the generation of sound during play in many games comprised of mostly simple beeps and clicks.

With my first CoCo game Neutroid II in 1984, I wanted to show what the CoCo's built in DAC circuitry could be made to do.

Click HERE to listen to the sound effects in Neutroid II.


The evolution of the Sound Engine

I began creating sound effects for my games back when I was programming my TRS-80 Model 1. The TRS-80 only had 1-bit sound via the cassette output. The most advanced sound I created back then used a table of data that represented the on/off state of the cassette audio. These tables were pre-generated via a BASIC program. The table data was sent a few bytes at a time during the game play to allow multi-tasking of the game graphics and reduce any graphics stutter during play.

When I moved to the CoCo, I expanded this technique to utilize the 6-bit DAC which allowed the sound to vary in amplitude and offer the ability to soften the end of a sound with a short fade to silence.

When I moved to the CoCo 3, I began to experiment with interrupts. By the time I got to my game Cosmic Ambush, I was using interrupts to drive a two channel sound output by combining sample tables via additive synthesis.

When I did Pac-man, I refined the code to take up less CPU cycles to allow more time for the game itself.

A further refinement came with Pop*Star Pilot which shared the interrupt handling to include scanline based video effects such as the split screen hardware scrolling and multi-color/animated background control.

For Gunstar, the Page Copy routine explained in the previous chapter of this blog consumed a lot of CPU time so it was back to the 2 channel sound routine of Pac-man but further optimized to take up as few CPU cycles as I could muster.

As you can see, over my 30 years of programming games, I have been evolving the sound routine as I learned more.


In-game Music

One area I have not explored has been in-game music. To include music as well as the sound effects required for the game, I needed to consume more CPU cycles. Spare CPU cycles is dependent on the game itself. A turned based or slow paced game would have cycles to spare but a game like Gunstar where much of the CPU is being spent on the graphic routines, spare cycles were not available.

I did try though and had some success but it involved turning to a very low sample rate and I felt the musical tones where too low in fidelity and it wasn't worth the CPU cycle loss for the end result.

I considered maybe having an option of choosing between sound effects and music but I decided that the game had to have the sound effects of laser gun fire and meaty explosions... so the in-game music was dropped.

To be  done properly, in-game music requires the support of a dedicated sound chip. I chose to plug along with my existing 2 channel routine for sound effects. This will allow everyone with a CoCo3 to hear the sound effects without the need to purchase additional hardware.


Look Ma! No Sound Chip!

Using the internet, I was able to locate suitable sound samples from the many free online resources available. The files I found were in WAV format which I down sampled to 8000Khz. I then wrote a BASIC program on the CoCo to input these files, downscaled them from 16-bit to 6-bit for use by the CoCo's DAC and clipped them all so they could all be stored in the 5 allocated MMU blocks (40K total). The actual playback sample rate is 7498Khz although I can adjust this easily.

Click on the image to the right to listen to the sound effects I have chosen for Gunstar. These sound effects were being played in real-time while multi-tasking with the Page Copy routine. 

I inserted code to allow me to trigger each sound effect by pressing the numeric keys. Pressing the 1 key would trigger the laser fire sound effect, key 2 would trigger the explosion effect and so forth. Two sound effects could be triggered simultaneously while the main code ran continuously, copying the graphics buffers used for the graphics engine.

The audio was recorded directly off a real CoCo3, no additional hardware was used. It shows what can be achieved with the standard built-in 6-bit DAC and the advanced interrupt handling of the CoCo3.

This test is a good indication of how much CPU time is consumed in generating the two most CPU intensive tasks in the game and lets me see how much time I can devote to the rest of the game. So far, so good.


Stay tuned...

This has been a short chapter that doesn't reflect the amount of time spent experimenting with the various sound effects, fine tuning each sample and exploring the prospects of in-game music.

Stay tuned for the next chapter where, if successful, I will announce another new feature to be included in Gunstar.




Copyright 2017 by Nickolas Marentes